Acceptable Quality Level use in the apparel garments industry

Garments Study

A.Q.L meaning Acceptable Quality Level (AQL). Some of the use A.Q.L meaning Acceptable Quality Limit.

There many types of A.Q.L system followed in apparel garments industry.

A sampling of quality audit or inspection system, use for quality audit or inspection process in Garments industry. AQL sampling information shows in an AQL chart, QC use for Quality Audit when 100% quality inspection is not possible.  AQL inspection use in Fabrics roll sampling, trims inspection, cutting panel inspection, Sewing, Finishing, and Final Inspection.  Though there is 100% inspection also available in sewing and finishing AQL audit is done for checking the quality control process. There is various type of AQL sampling plan in the world, I have given most commonly using 3 types AQL chart.

Uses of Acceptable Quality Level or A.Q.L. Chart in the apparel Garments Industry

  • In-house or incoming fabrics roll sampling for inspection.
  • In-house or incoming trims and accessories inspection.
  • After fabric Cutting cut panel inspection time.
  • Sewing section end table Quality inspection time.
  • Sewing section quality auditor sampling inspection time.
  • GPQ sewing inline sampling inspection time.
  • Finishing Quality section packing inspection time.
  • Finishing quality inline inspection time.
  • GPQ Pre-final Inspection time.
  • Final inspection time.

How many types of A.Q.L systems followed in the apparel garments industry?

There are a total number of six types of AQL system followed in the apparel garment industry.

Note below for better understanding:

  • AQL-1.0%,
  • AQL-1.5%,
  • AQL-2.5%,
  • AQL-4.0%,
  • AQL-6.5%,
  • AQL-10%.

Acceptable Quality Level or A.Q.L chart for quality inspection

AQL chart for quality inspection followed in the apparel garments industry in every section. Buyers submit huge order quantity orders in the garments apparel industry. Large order quantity not possible pcs to pcs inspection. So every apparel garment industry follows the A.Q.L system. AQL chart needs in the Garments industry to do the quality inspection, lot by lot AQL Audit or inspection. AQL chart systems are like 1.0, 1.5, 2.5, and 4.0.

Noted bellow A.Q.L chart…

A.Q.L CHART
LOT SIZESAMPLESAMPLEA.Q.L
 SIZE CODESIZE1.01.52.54.0
       
2-8A20000
9-15B30000
16-25C50000
26-50D80000
51-90E130000
91-150F200112
151-280G321123
281-500H501235
501-1200J802357
1201-3200K12535710
3201-10000L200571014
10001-35000M3157101421
35001-150000N50010142121
150001-500000P80014212121
500000 OVERQ125021212121
* If 1.5 Major then 2.5 consider to Minor
* If 2.5 Major then 4.00 consider to Minor
 
Acceptable Quality Level
Acceptable Quality Level or A.Q.L Chart

How can I understand Acceptable Quality Level or A.Q.L chart

AQL-1.5

Above the AQL chart, for example, if the lot size 50000 then the inspection sample quantity will be 500 pcs. If inspection time finds any major defects quantity among inspection quantity 14 or less than 14 will be passed or more than 14 defects will be failed or rejected in the inspection. If inspection time finds any minor defects quantity among inspection quantity 21 or less than 21 will be passed or more than 21 defects will be failed or rejected in the inspection. If inspection time finds major or minor both defects accept quantity will be passed if will be failed to accept defect quantity above. If Inspection time finds any critical defect inspection result will be failed.

AQL-

1. Suppose we follow AQL 2.5.  As per the above AQL chart, if the lot size 4000 then audit quantity will be 80 pcs major defects quantity among audit quantity 10 pcs or less than 10 pcs will be passed or more than 5 defects will be failed or rejected in Audit.
2. Suppose we follow AQL 2.5.  As per the above AQL chart, if the lot size 12500 then the audit quantity will be 125 pcs. Major defects quantity among audit quantity 7 or less than 7 will be passed or more than 7 defects will be failed or rejected in Audit.

AQL-1.5

AQL means an Acceptable Quality Level. The AQL is a quality standard followed during product quality inspection and product quality audits. In the industrial production and mass production age, product manufacturers make thousands of units for the same item. Let’s say mass garment production. In a situation where the buyer needs to check the garments before accepting the order, it is not possible to check hundreds of garments. Instead of checking all the packed garments a certain percentage of the garment lot is checked and based on the inspection result the lot is accepted or rejected.

To derive how many garments the inspector needs to check out of the lot AQL system (AQL chart) is followed. The quality inspector collects samples from the whole inspection lot according to the standard sample size. The inspector only checks sample size items and detects defects and defective units from the sample size.

In the AQL standard chart, it is defined that up to how many defective garments can be accepted. If the inspector finds more defective units (defects) in the sample size units than the acceptable limit, the whole lot will be rejected.

AQL term can be also defined as a statistical tool for quality inspection.

As per another source (www.whatissixsigma.net/), AQL stands for “Acceptance Quality Level” and the abbreviation of AQL has been renamed as “Acceptance Quality Limits”. It is the limit that customer sets which are not really acceptable. Customers prefer zero defect products or services, which is the ideal acceptable quality level. However, customers arrive and set acceptable quality limits based on business, financial, and safety levels.

In the AQL system, visual defects like minor defects, major defects, and critical defects are counted and weightage is given differently.  Measurement defects (out of tolerance measurements) are also considered in AQL inspection. 

AQL chart for Garments inspection

AQL-4.0

As per the above AQL chart, if the lot size 4000 then the audit quantity will be 80 pcs. Major defects quantity among audit quantity 5 or less than 5 will be passed or more than 5 defects will be failed or rejected in Audit.

AQL-2.5

1. Suppose we follow AQL 2.5.  As per the above AQL chart, if the lot size 4000 then the audit quantity will be 80 pcs. Major defects quantity among audit quantity 5 or less than 5 will be passed or more than 5 defects will be failed or rejected in Audit.
2. Suppose we follow AQL 2.5.  As per the above AQL chart, if the lot size 12500 then the audit quantity will be 125 pcs. Major defects quantity among audit quantity 7 or less than 7 will be passed or more than 7 defects will be failed or rejected in Audit.

AQL-1.5

Suppose we follow AQL 1.5.  As per above AQL chart, if lot size 4000 then audit quantity will be 80 pcs. Major defects quantity among audit quantity 2 or less than 2 will be passed or more than 2 defects will be failed or rejected in Audit.

AQL Audit system in Garments industry

First of all check lot quantity. As per AQL Audit requirement, auditor pick audit/ sample quantity randomly from every lot, like a lottery. Then auditor checks garments from picked sample quantity and count defect. If defect quantity exceed acceptable limit, audit result is “failed” or “rejected” that inspected lot.

Why we need AQL Audit

When you want to check quality inspected goods or you do not have time to check 100% goods you can do AQL audit. Final inspection is done in AQL Audit; factories have internal AQL audit system. To check supplier’s fabrics and Trims quality, you need AQL audit in suppliers Raw materials. Sewing end line and operator bundle wise AQL audit also done in apparel industry.

Acceptable Quality Level (AQL) | Definition of AQL | AQL System | AQL Chart

What is AQL?

The term AQL stands for acceptable quality level or acceptance quality level. It is one of the most used terms in the readymade garments industry when it comes into consideration to quality. It should be noted here that, most of the acceptance decisions of garment export order shipments are made based on AQL based sampling plans. To ensure the right quality products, an AQL chart has to follow during an inspection of apparel which varies from product to product, process to process, and even buyer to buyer. Acceptable Quality Level (AQL) has great importance in the ready-made apparel business.

Fig: Acceptable quality level (AQL)

Acceptable Quality Level (AQL) refers to the maximum number of defective items that could be considered acceptable during the random sampling of and inspection. It is expressed in a percentage (%) number of average defective items where the average defective item is the multiple results of the total number of defective items found during the inspection and the total number of items inspected.

The faults or defects which are found during the inspection are mainly classified into four categories:

Critical: Must be 100% accurate. There is no range.

Major: Normally 2.5%

Minor: Normally 4%

Slight: Normally 6.5%

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